PGI DENTAL 2012 QUESTION PAPER


 DISCLAIMER :
THESE ARE REMEMBERED QUESTIONS AND TENTATIVE ANSWERS , DO NOT FOLLOW BLINDLY.



Q1)hair on end appearance not seen in a) thallasemia b) sickle cell anrmia c) paget disease@@@@@@@@@ d) colley anemia


Answer is c. Reference page 542 , Neville.



Q2)Nesbit PROSTHESIS IS USED IN?A)in case of hemi mandibulectomyB)ear prosthesisC)unilateral partial denture@@@d)nasal prosthesis



Etched metal surface This prosthesis has been described facetiously as a cemented "Nesbit," a unilateral partial denture, or an adult space maintaintainer. Reference: tylmann prosthodontics.



Q3)hyaline cartilage isa.ectodermalb.mesodermal@@@c.endodermald.ectomesodermal


Q4)a patient with furcation involvement where soft tissue is seen and probe can be passeda) type 1 furcationb) type 2 furcationc)type 3 furcation@@@@@@d)type 4 furcation


Q5)CIDEX IS?A)Glutaldehyde@@@@@@B)AlcoholC)Antifungald) formaldehyde


Q6)best way to see caries on proximal surfacea.bite wing@@@@@2b.occlusal x rayc .opgd.iopa


Q7)Immunity present in a group of individuals in a community is called as..A)HERD IMMUNITY@@@@@@B) GROUP IMMUNITY7C)ACTIVE IMMUNITYD)PASSIVE IMMUNITY



Q8)for condylar fracture and ramus we usea) reverse town@@@@@@@@b) town viewc) smv viewd)town


Q9)change in arch length from mixed to permanent dentitiona dexrease@@@@@@@b increasesc constantd)increase and then decrease


Q10)to prevent magificationa.use short coneb.use long cone@@@@@@@@@c.reduce exposure timed held film at max distance with parallel


Q11)Grinspan syndrome associated witha lichen planus@@@@@@@@b leukoplakiac


Q12)grand rapids-----a)muskeganin USAb)kingstonc)OAK PARK


Q13)recommended dose for salt flouridationa 250mg@@@@@@b 100mgc 125mg


Q14)microfilled comp size????A)0.01-0.04@@B)2-4C).2-.4


Q15)Pan systolic murmur seen in all of the following exceept?1. Mitral stenosis @@@@@@@2. Atrial Septal Defect3. Ventricular Septal Defect


Q16)platysma is supplied bya facial nerve@@@@@@@b. accesory nervec.mandibular nerve


Q17)1ppm flouride is equal toA)1mg of flouride in 1 litre of water@@@@@@@B)1mg of flouride in 10 litreC)1gram of flouride in 1 litre



Q18)which relation used by angle for classificationa verticalb transversec saggital@@@@@2d saggital and transverse


Q19)cleft lip and palate both area.50 percent occurance@@@@@@@b.80 percent occurancec.30 percent occurance


Q20)HOOK'S LAW applies to all wires excepta.TMAb.nitinolc.a-niti*** REF.PROFFIT 4TH ED PG365d .M-niti


Q21)not to do in tmj surgeryA) High shave condyle headb) ipsilateral coronoidectomyc)contralaterald) interposition graft


Q22)said BLEEDING only no change in color, GINGIVAL INDEXA) FIRSTB)SECOND@@@@@C)THIRD


Q23)2 percent naf ph isa weakly acidicb basicc neutral@@@@@@@d acidic


Q24)not associated with supernumary teetha.apart syndome@@@@@@@@b.down syndromc.sequel syndromed.gardner syndrome


Q25) Name drug causing side effect Methhaemaglobinemia?a) paraphenitidineb)desferroxaminec)phenacetin@@@@@@@d)aspirin


Q26)The submandibular ganglion is anatomically associated withA)lingual nerve@@@@@@@@@@@B)CHORDA TYMPANIC)FACIAL NERVED)HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE


Q27)In humans preterm birth refers to the birth of a baby of less thanA) 42 weeks gestational age.B)38 WEEKSC)30 WEEKSd)37 weeks


Q28)a child suffering by distribution of lesion at molar and incisal area with lack of clinical inflammation. diagnosis isa) localized juvenile periodontitis@@@b)aggresive periodontitis


Q29)bass method of brushinga.verticalb.vibratory@@@@@@c)side to sided)roll


30)OSMF , true is? a ) stomatopyrosis b) avesicle,petechiae,melanosis, xerostomia c )blotchy marble like pallor n progressive stiffness of subepithelial tissued) all of above@@@


Q31)most common cause of myoitis ossificana) injuryb) infectionc) trauma@@@@@@@d)hereditary


Q32)About lichen planus not true isa.women predominance over men by 3:2b.prevalence of oral lichen planus 0.1-2.2%c.usually affect extensor surfaces of extremeties@@@@@@@d.associated with hepatitis c



Q33)which is most common in childrena crown fractureb crown root fracturec luxationd)root fracture


Q34)according to who dmf index criteria for 2025 isa) zero@@@@@b)1c)2d) 3


Q35)for toxoid which is useda rubellab polioc hepatis ad. diptheria@@@@@


Q36)mucin isa.glycoprotein@@@@@@@b.nucleoproteinc.phosphoprotein


Q37)the name of sample group of individual when following for succesive examination to evaluate oral preventive programa.panel groupb.cohort group@@@@c.high riskd.prospective



Q38)alterd cast technique in rpd?a.Clas 2?b.cl-4c.cl-3d.cl-3 with modified space2


Q39)pulp oximetry measureA)blood flowB)oxygen saturation@@@@@@@@@


40) widest palatal seal is achieved  in ?a.class1b.class2div1c.class2div2d.class3


Q41)wire used for pendulum appliancea) 036 stainless steel@@@@@@b) 032 stainless steelc) Tmad)elgiloy


Q42)most common cause of failure of impression materiala) inheritent voids that are too largeb) less or more impression materialc) uncooperative patientd) wrong tray position




Q43)precision  attachment is  indicated primarily in-a.teeth with large pulp horns.b.all tooth supported denturesc. tissue supported dentured . for those which required more retention compared to clasp



Q44)maxillary 3rd molar extraction positions which is wrong?a)12 o clock@@@@@@b)11o clockc)1 o clockd)9 o clock


Q45)fetal alcohol syndrome??a failure of organ formatnb) failure to move germ cell layersc?d?



Q46)Ameloblastoma is tumor of?a)odontogenic epitheliumb. odontogenic ectomesenchymec?d?


Q47)100% total fluoridation in countires-a)thailand and polandb)thailand and spainc)franece and spaaind)hongkong n singapore@@@@



Q48)flouridated amalgam have?a) snf2 8%b) snf2 (1% tha ya 10%tha)c)nafd) apf


Q49)KNUTSON TECHNIQUE INCLUDE?A)NAF2B)APFC)SNF2


Q50)initiation of hard tissue  of max.lateral occur at?a)4 weeks in uterob) at birth


Q51)most commonly used antibiotic for periodontal lesions?A)AUGMENTINB)AMOXYCILLINC)TETRACYCLINED)METRONIDAZOLE


Q52)Sutton disease is a feature of?a)major apthous@@@@b)minor apthousc)herpetiform apthaed)All


Q53)which is histological feature of brown tumour?a) benignb) malignantc)giant cell granuloma


Q54)General lack of bone marrow activity is seen in which anemia?a) Aplastic anemia@@@@@b)pernicious anemiac)sickle cell anemiad)thalessemia


Q55)Three canals and three roots seen in upper premolars are?a)3%b)less than 1%c)50%d) 6%@@@@@


Q56)Which is not seen in cavernous sinus thrombosis?a)increase venous pressure in orbitb)meningeal irritationc)septicemiad)no infectn site is present



Q57)which is best method to sterlize gutta percha?a) dippng in strongest solution  of sodium hypochloriteb)autoclavec)dry heatd) ethyl alcohol



Q58)Cavosurface margin for inlay is?a)right angleb)bevelledc)featherd)chamfer



Q59)crowe's sign seen inA)von reckling disease associatd wid somewht axail freckling@@@@@@@ b)syphilisc)cholecystisis


Q 60) Vitremor is?a)metal bonded gicb)resin bonded gicc) polyacid modified composite



Q61)piezoelectric handpiece works at frequencya.2000-3000hzb.6000-9000hzc.20000-30000hzd.20000-45000hz@@@@@@ref. cranza pg608


Q62)Which is not a part of epidemiology triad?a)disease@@@@@b)hostc)environmentd)agent



Q63)Patient suffering from carbohydrate deficiency would lead to?a)ketoacidosis@@@@b)metabolic alkalosis



Q64)The centre of resistance to move maxillary anterior six tooth lie above?a)root of first and second premolarb) in b/w roots of 2 central incisorsC) In b/w lateral incisors and canine on both sided)at mid point of max central 


Q65) aipd wid cncA)81.75 +3.5b. 87+- 0.1C. 83+-0.3D. 79+-0.2



Q66) glycated hemoglobin chekd bfr periodontal surgeryina) controlled diabetes mellitusb)uncontrolled diabetes mellitus@@@@c)d)



Q67) tremor on movement are seen ina) cerebellar syndr/lesionb). lesion in cerebellarc).injury to hypoythalamusd).Internal capsule damage




Q68)upper motor neuron palsy true is -a. paralysis of lower part ipsilateralb. contralateral paralysis of lower sidec. paralysis of half side ipsilaterald)



‎Q69)hot tooth isa)which can not be  b anaesthestized@@@@b) tooth in line of fracturec)tooth with vertical#d)Q70) oral submucous fibrosis caused bya. chewing areca nut*b)tobacco



Q71)end stage organ involvement in hypertension depends upon?a)sbpb)dbpc) thcknes of arteriesd) cardiac output


Q72)anti mongloid slant is seen in aa) lf 1b) lf 2c) lf3d)nasoethmoidal fractr


Q73)if k ng vowels are used to judge?a)depth of incisive areab)ant post positin of ant tethc)doesnot affect the denture



Q74)‎hemifacial microsomia is due toa)non migratn of germ layersb) non formatn of germ layers c)efect in origin migration and interaction of cell population


Q75) glistening...(othr featrs) apearance of gngva..seen in stage 1 2 3 4.??


Q76)secndry displacement of maxilla is due toa)sutural growthb) cartlagenus growth(sychndroses)c)functional matrixd)cortical drift



77)catabolic phase aftr surgery cntinue tila)1to 2 daysb)2- 5days@@@@


‎78)in 3rd trimester patient position in treatment..a)rt lateral decubitisb)lt lateral dicubitisc) sitting


‎79) didochism way of communication isa)1 way communicationb)2 way communicationc)verbal communicationd)telephonic communication



80)Centre of resistance for bodily movement.a.apical thirdb.mid thirdc.infinity.


Q81)in modified gingival index...involving the entire marginal or papillary gingiva........scores ......1,2,3,4??


Q82)during intial lateral mvt of tmj cndyle  protrusive movt isa) 3 mmb) 4mmc)6 mmd)8mm



Q83)A suffix for rubber dam stands fora)unerupted teethb)for wingless retainerc)winged retainerd)primary dentition


Q84)ques was adv of using niti endo instruments over stainless steel.1) less breakage2)more flexible


Q85)a patient of 7 years vesicles on post. palatal area and posterior pharyngeal wall  and is suffering frm37°fever.he is suff from?a)chicken poxb)herpanginac)herpes zosterd)erythema multiformae



Q86)usefulnes of screening test depend upona)sensitivity@@@@b)specificity


Q87)V is used to determine ?a)freeway spaceb)anteroposterior relationship of maxillary and mandibular teethc)closest speaking space


Q88)which one resembles probability curve?a)curve of speeb)curve of monsoonc)curve of anti monsond)curve of wilson



Q89)Addition of chromium in stainless steel does not cause?a)Increase in hardnessb)Increase in corrosion resistancec)decrease elastic limitd)increase tensile strength


‎90)Whole blood is stored at?a)zero degreeb)0-4 degree c@@@@@c)3-5 degree cd)12-25 degree c




Q91) aftr post preparation hw much gp shud b left in canal.....a)3mmb)2mmc)4mmd)6mm


Q92)First and the oldest implant was made by?a)branemarkb)c)d)


Q93)measure taken initially to prevent occurance of disease?a)primordial prvenetionb)primary preventionc)secondary prevention


Q94)period of embryo is?a)2-8 wks


Q95)tetracycline stains on teeth are due toa)octacalcium po4b )tetracalcium po4c)dicalcium phosphate dihydarate


Q96)drug that hinders/delays orthodontic movement?A)aspirin


Q97)whch of them is correct regardng tumor grading?a)poorly diferentiatd hav got les gradingb)grading is done one the degree of metastasisc)the cell which are more in number , show more pleomorphism , are poorly differentiated


Q98)‎self biting tendecy present in -a) Lysnch syndrome@@@b)cockanye syndrome


Q99)whch of dem is nt done on day 1 of anug treatment?a)subgingival scaling@@@@b)ultrasonic scalingc)pseudomembrane remval.D)hydrogen peroxide application


Q100)100) most mature or old enamel is seen in..?a)cervical thirdb)middle 3rdc) cusp tips



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How to set up a new Dental Clinic

This article focuses on young dentists , who with long standing MDS dream were not able to crack MDS entrance and are unable to pay heavy capitation fees.... DON'T GIVE UP

With increased  competition in mds entrance exams for few govt. seats have let down lot of MDS aspirants. The fee structure for  MDS seats in private colleges have gown up to 6-7 lakhs a year, which is beyond the reach of common middle class family. So once again comes the big question,





WHAT NEXT?

WHAT AFTER BDS ?

For all my dear aspirants,

DON'T GIVE UP.


You are already a professional BDS doctor. Don't underestimate your BDS skills and Qualifications. Obviously the best scenario is in being able to pursue a PG degree. But, this is not always possible as mentioned above.



If you still don't believe me, here are few facts:

1. On an average , a BDS practitioner is making one lakh a month.
2. There is huge demand for dentists in outskirts of all cities in INDIA.
3. Why do you want to setup clinic only in central hubs , there is huge potential in sub urbs.
4. Paying capacity of patients is less in remote areas but number of patients is more.
5. Some of the best dentists are the ones with only a bachelor’s degree. They have reached the pinnacle of their profession through the dint of hard work & constant self-examination.

So , its high time now take the big decision.START your own private practice.

What you require ?

1. A BDS degree. (which you already have)
2. Get 6 month experience of clinical work  in a reputed dental clinic under a qualified dental practitioner.This will boost your confidence and you will how to handle patients at private clinics.
3. A diploma or a short course in aesthetic dentistry or endodontics is always a help.
4. Preferably look for a shop in good commercial area or near by a hospital. You need not buy it, you can always start on a rented shop.
5. If you can get associated with an ENT or MS (eye) , you can start a PolyClinic in patnership.
6. Minimum space advised is 250 sqft. More than this is a luxury.

Equipment and Material : (costs range between 3 to 5 lakhs )




1. A Dental Chair : Go for a brand which provides service in your area.  (1 to 4 lakhs)
2. Compressor : min. 20 litres capacity ( 10 to 20 thousand)
3. Dental chair should be equipped with motorised suction, 3 way syringe and micromotor.
4. x-ray machine which supports use of RVG later on. (25 to 70 thousand)
5. Ultrasonic Scaler  : preferably good brand (5 to 30 thousand)
6. Cordless Light Cure unit ( 5 to 25 thousand)
7. A straight hand piece
8. A contra angle hand piece
9. Airrotor ( 3 in number)
10. Autoclave (min. 5 lit. , top loading, newer front loading are better)
11. Glass bead sterliser

12. UV chamber
13. A full set of upper and lower teeth extraction forceps...go for the best brand (150 to 600 a piece)
14. A needle cutter
15. PMT sets ( best brand ) min. 15 in number.
16. Kidney trays 15
17. Enamel trays 3
18. Intrument drums 2
19. Ultrasonic bath
20. A portable X- ray developing chamber.
21. Dental burs
22. Alginate
23. Rubber Based impression material
24. Conservative filling instruments
25. Prosthodontic Instument Kit
25. Endo box
26. Endo gauge
27. Bur box
28. K- files all sizes, broaches , spreader etc.
29. Endo MOTOR ( optional)
30. RVG (optional)
31. Apex locator (optional)
32. All endo related material e.g. sealer, gp points, paper points,
33. Ca hydoxide
34. Temporary filling material
35. Composite starter kit
36. Lathe (optional)
37. Suction tips
38. Cotton holder
39. Developer and fixer
40. Gates glidden and paeso reamers
41. Plaster, stone and die stone
42. Impression trays both perforated and non perforated
43. Articulators
44. Posts and core material
45. Prophylactic paste
46. Instant Hand sanitizer
47. Filling materials like amalgam, GIC, compomer , miracle mix and posterior composites.
48. Pain OFF
49. Alveogyl
50. Irrigants


This is a brief list.

What more do you need ?

Dental office and waiting area furniture which may consists of

- Doctor's Table
- Doctor's Chair
- 2 patients chairs

One reception table
- receptionists chair
- waiting chairs from 6 to 20 depending on size of OPD

OTHER MUST HAVE FEATURES IN YOU CLINIC

A LCD/LED TV in waiting area.
A Water filter with hot/cold water facilities
A magazine stand with newspaper in regional language and few magazines


All is done I guess.... Along with all these things your courteous attitude and humble approach with a smile on your face is required to treat patients even before they sit on your dental chair.





ALL THE BEST !!





LEAVE YOUR COMMENTS BELOW !!




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ANATOMY OF SALIVARY GLANDS






The parotid gland

This is the largest of the salivary glands,
lying wedged between the mandible and sternocleidomastoid and overflowing both these bounding structures.

The parotid and its surrounds in a schematic horizontal section—the facial nerve is the most superficial of the structures traversing the gland.
Relations

Above—lie the external auditory meatus and temporomandibular joint.
Below—it overflows the posterior belly of digastric.
Anteriorly—it overflows the mandible with the overlying masseter.
Medially —lies the styloid process and its muscles separating the parotid from the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery, last four cranial nerves and the lateral wall of the pharynx.
The gland itself is enclosed in a split in the investing fascia, lying both on and below which are the parotid lymph nodes.
Antero-inferiorly, this parotid fascia is thickened and is the only structure separating the parotid from the submandibular gland (the stylomandibular ligament).

Traversing the gland (from without in) are
1. the facial nerve;
2. the retromandibular (posterior facial) vein, formed by the junction of the superficial temporal and maxillary veins.
3. the external carotid artery, dividing at the neck of the mandible into its superficial temporal and maxillary terminal branches

The parotid duct (of Stensen)
The parotid duct (of Stensen) is 2in (5cm) long.
It arises from the anterior part of the gland,
runs over the masseters a finger’s breadth below the zygomatic arch to pierce the buccinator and
open opposite the second upper molar tooth.
The duct can easily be felt by a finger rolled over the masseter if this muscle is tensedby clenching the teeth.

THE RELATIONS OF THE FACIAL NERVE TO THE PAROTID

• The facial nerve is unique in traversing the substance of a gland, a fact of considerable importance .
• This coexistence is explained embryologically; the parotid gland develops in the crotch formed by the two major branches of the facial nerve.
• As the gland enlarges it overlaps these nerve trunks, the superficial and deep parts fuse and the nerve comes to lie buried within the gland.
• The facial nerve emerges from the stylomastoid foramen, winds laterally to the styloid process and can then be exposed in the inverted V between the bony part of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
• This has a useful surface marking, the intertragic notch of the ear, which is situated directly over the facial nerve.
• Just beyond this point the nerve dives into the posterior aspect of the parotid gland and bifurcates  almost immediately into its two main divisions (occasionally it divides before entering the gland).
• The upper division divides into temporal and zygomatic branches;
• the lower division gives the buccal, mandibular and cervical branches.
• These two divisions may remain completely separate within the parotid, may form a plexus of intermingling connections,
• The branches of the nerve then emerge on the anterior aspect of the parotid to lie on the masseter, thence to pass to the muscles of the face.
• No branches emerge from the superficial aspect of the gland,

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Anatomy of the Bones of Cervical Spine

Anatomy of the Bones of Cervical Spine
Atlas
1st Cervical Vertabrae
 
Lack of Body
 
Superior Articular Foveae
Inferior Articulating Foveae
      Fovea Dentis 

Axis
C2

Dens-Rotation between skull and atlas
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